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Title:

Endogenous Semiparametric Binary Choice Models with Heteroscedasticity

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In this paper we consider endogenous regressors in the binary choice model under a weak median exclusion restriction, but without further specification of the distribution of the unobserved random components. Our reduced form specification with heteroscedastic residuals covers various heterogeneous structural binary choice models. As a particula...

In this paper we consider endogenous regressors in the binary choice model under a weak median exclusion restriction, but without further specification of the distribution of the unobserved random components. Our reduced form specification with heteroscedastic residuals covers various heterogeneous structural binary choice models. As a particularly relevant example of a structural model where no semiparametric estimator has of yet been analyzed, we consider the binary random utility model with endogenous regressors and heterogeneous parameters. We employ a control function IV assumption to establish identification of a slope parameter beta by the mean ratio of derivatives of two functions of the instruments. We propose an estimator based on direct sample counterparts, and discuss the large sample behavior of this estimator. In particular, we show root-n consistency and derive the asymptotic distribution. In the same framework, we propose tests for heteroscedasticity, overidentification and endogeneity. We analyze the small sample performance through a simulation study. An application of the model to discrete choice demand data concludes this paper. ; Semiparametric, Binary Choice, Endogeneity, Average Derivative, Control Function, Random Coefficients Minimize

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Title:

How Many Consumers are Rational?

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Rationality places strong restrictions on individual consumer behavior. This paper is concerned with assessing the validity of the integrability constraints imposed by standard utility maximization, arising in classical consumer demand analysis. More specifically, we characterize the testable implications of negative semidefiniteness and symmetr...

Rationality places strong restrictions on individual consumer behavior. This paper is concerned with assessing the validity of the integrability constraints imposed by standard utility maximization, arising in classical consumer demand analysis. More specifically, we characterize the testable implications of negative semidefiniteness and symmetry of the Slutsky matrix across a heterogeneous population without assuming anything on the functional form of individual preferences. In the same spirit, homogeneity of degree zero is being considered. Our approach employs nonseparable models and is centered around a conditional independence assumption, which is sufficiently general to allow for endogenous regressors. It is the only substantial assumption a researcher has to specify in this model, and has to be evaluated with particular care. Finally, we apply all concepts to British household data: We show that rationality is an acceptable description for large parts of the population, regardless of whether we test on single or composite households. ; Nonparametric, Integrability, Testing Rationality, Nonseparable Models, Demand, Nonparametric IV Minimize

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Developments in Nonparametric Demand Analysis: Heterogeneity and Nonparametrics

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This paper discusses new development in nonparametric econometric approaches related to empirical modeling of demand decisons. It shows how diverse recent approaches are, and what new modeling options arise in practice. We review work on nonparametric identification using nonseparable functions, semi-and nonparametric estimation approaches invol...

This paper discusses new development in nonparametric econometric approaches related to empirical modeling of demand decisons. It shows how diverse recent approaches are, and what new modeling options arise in practice. We review work on nonparametric identification using nonseparable functions, semi-and nonparametric estimation approaches involving inverse problems, and nonparametric testing approaches. We focus on classical consumer demand systems with continuous quantities, and do not consider approaches that involve discrete consumption decisions as are common in empirical industrial organization. Our intention is to give a subjective account on the usefulness of these various methods for applications in the field. ; Nonparametric, Integrability, Testing Rationality, Nonseparable Models, Demand, Nonparametric IV Minimize

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Title:

Endogenous semiparametric binary choice models with heteroscedasticity

Description:

In this paper we consider endogenous regressors in the binary choice model under a weak median exclusion restriction, but without further specification of the distribution of the unobserved random components. Our reduced form specification with heteroscedastic residuals covers various heterogeneous structural binary choice models. As a particula...

In this paper we consider endogenous regressors in the binary choice model under a weak median exclusion restriction, but without further specification of the distribution of the unobserved random components. Our reduced form specification with heteroscedastic residuals covers various heterogeneous structural binary choice models. As a particularly relevant example of a structural model where no semiparametric estimator has of yet been analyzed, we consider the binary random utility model with endogenous regressors and heterogeneous parameters. We employ a control function IV assumption to establish identification of a slope parameter 'â' by the mean ratio of derivatives of two functions of the instruments. We propose an estimator based on direct sample counterparts, and discuss the large sample behavior of this estimator. In particular, we show '√'n consistency and derive the asymptotic distribution. In the same framework, we propose tests for heteroscedasticity, overidentification and endogeneity. We analyze the small sample performance through a simulation study. An application of the model to discrete choice demand data concludes this paper. Minimize

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Title:

How many consumers are rational?

Description:

Rationality places strong restrictions on individual consumer behavior. This paper is concerned with assessing the validity of the integrability constraints imposed by standard utility maximization, arising in classical consumer demand analysis. More specifically, we characterize the testable implications of negative semidefiniteness and symmetr...

Rationality places strong restrictions on individual consumer behavior. This paper is concerned with assessing the validity of the integrability constraints imposed by standard utility maximization, arising in classical consumer demand analysis. More specifically, we characterize the testable implications of negative semidefiniteness and symmetry of the Slutsky matrix across a heterogeneous population without assuming anything on the functional form of individual preferences. In the same spirit, homogeneity of degree zero is being considered. Our approach employs nonseparable models and is centered around a conditional independence assumption, which is sufficiently general to allow for endogenous regressors. It is the only substantial assumption a researcher has to specify in this model, and has to be evaluated with particular care. Finally, we apply all concepts to British household data: We show that rationality is an acceptable description for large parts of the population, regardless of whether we test on single or composite households. Minimize

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Identification and estimation of local average derivatives in non-separable models without monotonicity

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In many structural economic models there are no good arguments for additive separability of the error. Recently, this motivated intensive research on non-separable structures. For instance, in Hoderlein and Mammen (2007) a non-separable model in the single equation case was considered, and it was established that in the absence of the frequently...

In many structural economic models there are no good arguments for additive separability of the error. Recently, this motivated intensive research on non-separable structures. For instance, in Hoderlein and Mammen (2007) a non-separable model in the single equation case was considered, and it was established that in the absence of the frequently employed monotonicity assumption local average structural derivatives (LASD) are still identified. In this paper, we introduce an estimator for the LASD. The estimator we propose is based on local polynomial fitting of conditional quantiles. We derive its large sample distribution through a Bahadur representation, and give some related results, e.g. about the asymptotic behaviour of the quantile process. Moreover, we generalize the concept of LASD to include endogeneity of regressors and discuss the case of a multivariate dependent variable. We also consider identification of structured non-separable models, including single index and additive models. We discuss specification testing, as well as testing for endogeneity and for the impact of unobserved heterogeneity. We also show that fixed censoring can easily be addressed in this framework. Finally, we apply some of the concepts to demand analysis using British Consumer Data. Copyright The Author(s). Journal compilation Royal Economic Society 2009 Minimize

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Title:

Demand Analysis as an Ill-Posed Inverse Problem with Semiparametric Specification

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In this paper we are concerned with analyzing the behavior of a semiparametric estimator which corrects for endogeneity in a nonparametric regression by assuming mean independence of residuals from instruments only. Because it is common in many applications, we focus on the case where endogenous regressors and additional instruments are jointly ...

In this paper we are concerned with analyzing the behavior of a semiparametric estimator which corrects for endogeneity in a nonparametric regression by assuming mean independence of residuals from instruments only. Because it is common in many applications, we focus on the case where endogenous regressors and additional instruments are jointly normal, conditional on exogenous regressors. This leads to a severely ill-posed inverse problem. In this setup, we show first how to test for conditional normality. More importantly, we then establish how to exploit this knowledge when constructing an estimator, and we derive results characterizing the large sample behavior of such an estimator. In addition, in a Monte Carlo experiment we analyze the finite sample behavior of the proposed estimator. Our application comes from consumer demand. We obtain new and interesting findings that highlight both the advantages, and the difficulties of an approach which leads to ill-posed inverse problems. Finally, we discuss the somewhat problematic relationship between nonparametric instrumental variable models, and the recently emphasized issue of unobserved heterogeneity in structural models. ; Instrumental variables; Inverse problem; Nonparametric regression, Consumer Demand, Convergence rates Minimize

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Regressor Dimension Reduction with Economic Constraints: The Example of Demand Systems with Many Goods

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Microeconomic theory often yields models with multiple nonlinear equations, nonseparable unobservables, nonlinear cross equation restrictions, and many potentially multicollinear covariates. We show how statistical dimension reduction techniques can be applied in models with these features. In particular, we consider estimation of derivatives of...

Microeconomic theory often yields models with multiple nonlinear equations, nonseparable unobservables, nonlinear cross equation restrictions, and many potentially multicollinear covariates. We show how statistical dimension reduction techniques can be applied in models with these features. In particular, we consider estimation of derivatives of average structural functions in large consumer demand systems, which depend nonlinearly on the prices of many goods. Utility maximization imposes nonlinear cross equation constraints including Slutsky symmetry, and preference heterogeneity yields de- mand functions that are nonseparable in unobservables. The standard method of achieving dimension reduction in demand systems is to impose strong, empirically questionable economic restrictions like separability. In contrast, the validity of statistical methods of dimension reduction like principal components have not hitherto been studied in contexts like these. We derive the restrictions implied by utility maximization on dimension reduced de- mand systems, and characterize the implications for identification and estimation of structural marginal effects. We illustrate the results by reporting estimates of the effects of gasoline prices on the demands for many goods, without imposing any economic separability assumptions. ; Demand System, Dimension Reduction, Marshallian demands, Separability, Testing Rationality, Nonparametric, Gasoline prices. Minimize

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Title:

Structural Measurement Errors in Nonseparable Models

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This paper considers measurement error from a new perspective. In surveys, response errors are often caused by the fact that respondents recall past events and quantities imperfectly. We explore the consequences of recall errors for such key econometric issues as the identification of marginal effects or economic restrictions in structural model...

This paper considers measurement error from a new perspective. In surveys, response errors are often caused by the fact that respondents recall past events and quantities imperfectly. We explore the consequences of recall errors for such key econometric issues as the identification of marginal effects or economic restrictions in structural models. Our identification approach is entirely nonparametric, using Matzkin-type nonseparable models that nest a large class of potential structural models. We establish that measurement errors due to poor recall are generally likely to exhibit nonstandard behavior, in particular be nonclassical and differential, and we provide means to deal with this situation. Moreover, our findings suggest that conventional wisdom about measurement errors may be misleading in many economic applications. For instance, under certain conditions left-hand side recall errors will be problematic even in the linear model, and quantiles will be less robust than means. Finally, we apply the main concepts put forward in this paper to real world data, and find evidence that underscores the importance of focusing on individual response behavior. ; Measurement Error, Nonparametric, Survey Design, Nonseparable Model, Identification, Zero Homogeneity, Demand Minimize

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Title:

Revealed Preferences in a Heterogeneous Population

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This paper explores the empirical content of the weak axiom of revealed preference (WARP) for repeated cross-sectional data or for panel data where individuals experience preference shocks. Specifically, in a heterogeneous population, think of the fraction of consumers violating WARP as the parameter of interest. This parameter depends on the jo...

This paper explores the empirical content of the weak axiom of revealed preference (WARP) for repeated cross-sectional data or for panel data where individuals experience preference shocks. Specifically, in a heterogeneous population, think of the fraction of consumers violating WARP as the parameter of interest. This parameter depends on the joint distribution of choices over different budget sets. Repeated cross-sections do not reveal this distribution but only its marginals. Thus, the parameter is not point identified but can be bounded. We frame this as a copula problem and use copula techniques to analyze it. The bounds, as well as some nonparametric refinements of them, correspond to intuitive behavioral assumptions in the two goods case. With three or more goods, these intuitions break down, and plausible assumptions can have counterintuitive implications. Inference on the bounds is an application of partial identification through moment inequalities. We implement our analysis with the British Family Expenditure Survey (FES) data. Upper bounds are fre- quently positive but lower bounds not significantly so, hence FES data are consistent with WARP in a heterogeneous population. ; Revealed Preference, Weak Axiom, Heterogeneity, Partial Identification, Moment Inequalities. Minimize

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