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Title:

Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

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Description:

Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in...

Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury. Minimize

Publisher:

Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Year of Publication:

2015-01-01T00:00:00Z

Source:

Sports, Vol 3, Iss 1, Pp 21-29 (2015)

Sports, Vol 3, Iss 1, Pp 21-29 (2015) Minimize

Document Type:

article

Language:

English

Subjects:

injuries ; Rugby Union ; epidemiology ; LCC:Sports ; LCC:GV557-1198.995 ; LCC:Recreation. Leisure ; LCC:GV1-1860 ; LCC:Geography. Anthropology. Recreation ; LCC:G

injuries ; Rugby Union ; epidemiology ; LCC:Sports ; LCC:GV557-1198.995 ; LCC:Recreation. Leisure ; LCC:GV1-1860 ; LCC:Geography. Anthropology. Recreation ; LCC:G Minimize

Rights:

CC BY

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http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4663/3/1/21

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Title:

27

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Publisher:

Paris: Masson

Year of Publication:

2010

Source:

Fatigue musculaire dans tous ses états ; Le surentraînement chez le sportif : fatigue physique ou psychologique.

Fatigue musculaire dans tous ses états ; Le surentraînement chez le sportif : fatigue physique ou psychologique. Minimize

Document Type:

info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart ; incollection

Language:

fr

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Title:

Piecewise continuous cumulative prospect theory and behavioral financial engineering

Description:

We extend the continuous Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) by considering piecewise con-tinuous distributions with a finite number of jump discontinuities. Such distributions are rele-vant in practice, for example, within the framework of financial engineering since cash flow distributions of most types of derivatives are only piecewise continuou...

We extend the continuous Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) by considering piecewise con-tinuous distributions with a finite number of jump discontinuities. Such distributions are rele-vant in practice, for example, within the framework of financial engineering since cash flow distributions of most types of derivatives are only piecewise continuous. In addition, we ex-pand the model with a (piecewise) continuous version of hedonic framing which is, until now, only available in a discrete model setting. We show how to apply the model to a broad class of structured products. Finally, we apply Prospect Theory (PT), CPT, and expected utility theory to a set of different real-life certificates with piecewise continuous and discrete distributions in order to analyze whether there are any significant differences between the theories, and which theory is able to explain the demand behavior of a market participant best. As a result, we recommend the use of the piecewise continuous version of CPT to design products within the framework of behavioral financial engineering. Minimize

Publisher:

Institut für Finanzwirtschaft, Technische Universität Braunschweig Braunschweig

Year of Publication:

2011

Document Type:

doc-type:workingPaper

Language:

deu

Subjects:

G31 ; G32 ; G35 ; ddc:330 ; Continuous Cumulative Prospect Theory ; Continuous Hedonic Framing ; Behavioral Finance ; Financial Engineering

G31 ; G32 ; G35 ; ddc:330 ; Continuous Cumulative Prospect Theory ; Continuous Hedonic Framing ; Behavioral Finance ; Financial Engineering Minimize

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Rights:

http://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen

http://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen Minimize

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Working papers // Institut für Finanzwirtschaft, Technische Universität Braunschweig IF37V1

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Title:

Hyperbolic billiards of pure D=4 supergravities

Description:

We compute the billiards that emerge in the Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) limit for all pure supergravities in D=4 spacetime dimensions, as well as for D=4, N=4 supergravities coupled to k (N=4) Maxwell supermultiplets. We find that just as for the cases N=0 and N=8 investigated previously, these billiards can be identified with the funda...

We compute the billiards that emerge in the Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) limit for all pure supergravities in D=4 spacetime dimensions, as well as for D=4, N=4 supergravities coupled to k (N=4) Maxwell supermultiplets. We find that just as for the cases N=0 and N=8 investigated previously, these billiards can be identified with the fundamental Weyl chambers of hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras. Hence, the dynamics is chaotic in the BKL limit. A new feature arises, however, which is that the relevant Kac-Moody algebra can be the Lorentzian extension of a twisted affine Kac-Moody algebra, while the N=0 and N=8 cases are untwisted. This occurs for N=5, N=3 and N=2. An understanding of this property is provided by showing that the data relevant for determining the billiards are the restricted root system and the maximal split subalgebra of the finite-dimensional real symmetry algebra characterizing the toroidal reduction to D=3 spacetime dimensions. To summarize: split symmetry controls chaos. ; Comment: 21 pages Minimize

Year of Publication:

2003-04-28

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

High Energy Physics - Theory

High Energy Physics - Theory Minimize

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Title:

Dynamic Effects of Foreign Direct Investment When Credit Markets are Imperfect

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This paper argues that foreign direct investment in economies with credit market imperfections may increase their vulnerability to capital flow shocks. Due to better access to financial markets foreign firms can use other wage contracts than domestic ones. This alters the domestic wage composition and the subsequent wealth distribution. When cre...

This paper argues that foreign direct investment in economies with credit market imperfections may increase their vulnerability to capital flow shocks. Due to better access to financial markets foreign firms can use other wage contracts than domestic ones. This alters the domestic wage composition and the subsequent wealth distribution. When credit markets are imperfect, the wealth distribution typically determines an economy's growth potential in autarky; hence, high exposure to foreign direct investment may significantly impede the capability to recover from sudden withdrawals of foreign capital. This is substantiated by empirical evidence on durations of output recovery after systemic sudden stops. Minimize

Publisher:

Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer Göttingen

Year of Publication:

2010

Document Type:

doc-type:conferenceObject

Language:

eng

Subjects:

F43 ; F23 ; O16 ; ddc:330 ; Credit market imperfections ; foreign direct investment ; growth ; occupational choice ; sudden stops

F43 ; F23 ; O16 ; ddc:330 ; Credit market imperfections ; foreign direct investment ; growth ; occupational choice ; sudden stops Minimize

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Rights:

http://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen

http://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen Minimize

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Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 5

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Title:

E11, Borcherds algebras and maximal supergravity

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The dynamical p-forms of torus reductions of maximal supergravity theory have been shown some time ago to possess remarkable algebraic structures. The set (“dynamical spectrum”) of propagating p-forms has been described as a (truncation of a) real Borcherds superalgebra D that is characterized concisely by a Cartan matrix which has been construc...

The dynamical p-forms of torus reductions of maximal supergravity theory have been shown some time ago to possess remarkable algebraic structures. The set (“dynamical spectrum”) of propagating p-forms has been described as a (truncation of a) real Borcherds superalgebra D that is characterized concisely by a Cartan matrix which has been constructed explicitly for each spacetime dimension 11 ≥ D ≥ 3. In the equations of motion, each differential form of degree p is the coefficient of a (super-) group generator, which is itself of degree p for a specific gradation (the -gradation). A slightly milder truncation of the Borcherds superalgebra enables one to predict also the “spectrum” of the non-dynamical (D − 1) and D-forms. The maximal supergravity p-form spectra were reanalyzed more recently by truncation of the field spectrum of E11 to the p-forms that are relevant after reduction from 11 to D dimensions. We show in this paper how the Borcherds description can be systematically derived from the split (“maximally non compact”) real form of E11 for D ≥ 1. This explains not only why both structures lead to the same propagating p-forms and their duals for p ≤ (D − 2), but also why one obtains the same (D−1)-forms and “top” D-forms. The Borcherds symmetries 2 and 1 are new too. We also introduce and use the concept of a presentation of a Lie algebra that is covariant under a given subalgebra. Minimize

Publisher:

Springer-Verlag

Year of Publication:

2012-04-01

Source:

Journal of High Energy Physics, 2012-04-01, Volume 2012, pp 1-31

Journal of High Energy Physics, 2012-04-01, Volume 2012, pp 1-31 Minimize

Language:

En

Subjects:

M-Theory ; Supersymmetry and Duality ; Gauge Symmetry ; String Duality

M-Theory ; Supersymmetry and Duality ; Gauge Symmetry ; String Duality Minimize

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Title:

Study of Two-Photon Corrections in the $p\bar{p} --> e+e-$ Process: Hard Rescattering Mechanism

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Description:

We investigate the two-photon corrections to the process $p\bar{p} \to e^+e^-$ at large momentum transfer, aimed to access the time-like nucleon form factors. We estimate the two-photon corrections using a hard rescattering mechanism, which has already been used to calculate the corresponding corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering. Us...

We investigate the two-photon corrections to the process $p\bar{p} \to e^+e^-$ at large momentum transfer, aimed to access the time-like nucleon form factors. We estimate the two-photon corrections using a hard rescattering mechanism, which has already been used to calculate the corresponding corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering. Using different nucleon distribution amplitudes, we find that the two-photon corrections to the $p\bar{p} \to e^+e^-$ cross sections in the momentum transfer range 5 - 30 GeV$^2$ is below the 1 % level. Minimize

Year of Publication:

2011-01-31

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

High Energy Physics - Phenomenology Minimize

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Title:

$E_{11}$, Borcherds algebras and maximal supergravity

Author:

Description:

The dynamical $p$-forms of torus reductions of maximal supergravity theory have been shown some time ago to possess remarkable algebraic structures. The set ("dynamical spectrum") of propagating $p$-forms has been described as a (truncation of a) real Borcherds superalgebra $\mf{V}_D$ that is characterized concisely by a Cartan matrix which has ...

The dynamical $p$-forms of torus reductions of maximal supergravity theory have been shown some time ago to possess remarkable algebraic structures. The set ("dynamical spectrum") of propagating $p$-forms has been described as a (truncation of a) real Borcherds superalgebra $\mf{V}_D$ that is characterized concisely by a Cartan matrix which has been constructed explicitly for each spacetime dimension $11 \geq D \geq 3.$ In the equations of motion, each differential form of degree $p$ is the coefficient of a (super-) group generator, which is itself of degree $p$ for a specific gradation (the $\mf{V}$-gradation). A slightly milder truncation of the Borcherds superalgebra enables one to predict also the "spectrum" of the non-dynamical $(D - 1)$ and $D$-forms. The maximal supergravity $p$-form spectra were reanalyzed more recently by truncation of the field spectrum of $E_{11}$ to the $p$-forms that are relevant after reduction from 11 to $D$ dimensions. We show in this paper how the Borcherds description can be systematically derived from the split ("maximally non compact") real form of $E_{11}$ for $D \geq 1.$ This explains not only why both structures lead to the same propagating $p$-forms and their duals for $p\leq (D - 2),$ but also why one obtains the same $(D - 1)$-forms and "top" $D$-forms. The Borcherds symmetries $\mf{V}_2$ and $\mf{V}_1$ are new too. We also introduce and use the concept of a presentation of a Lie algebra that is covariant under a given subalgebra. ; Comment: 39 pages. Version 2 contains improved presentation in particular an extra appendix B giving details on the infinite rank limit possibility. Version to appear in JHEP Minimize

Year of Publication:

2010-07-29

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

High Energy Physics - Theory

High Energy Physics - Theory Minimize

DDC:

539 Modern physics *(computed)*

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Title:

The Role of TRP Proteins in Mast Cells

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Description:

Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins form cation channels that are regulated through strikingly diverse mechanisms including multiple cell surface receptors, changes in temperature, in pH and osmolarity, in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and by phosphoinositides which makes them polymodal sensors for fine tuning of many cell...

Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins form cation channels that are regulated through strikingly diverse mechanisms including multiple cell surface receptors, changes in temperature, in pH and osmolarity, in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and by phosphoinositides which makes them polymodal sensors for fine tuning of many cellular and systemic processes in the body. The 28 TRP proteins identified in mammals are classified into six subfamilies: TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPML, and TRPP. When activated, they contribute to cell depolarization and Ca2+ entry. In mast cells, the increase of [Ca2+]i is fundamental for their biological activity, and several entry pathways for Ca2+ and other cations were described including Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. Like in other non-excitable cells, TRP channels could directly contribute to Ca2+ influx via the plasma membrane as constituents of Ca2+ conducting channel complexes or indirectly by shifting the membrane potential and regulation of the driving force for Ca2+ entry through independent Ca2+ entry channels. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the expression of individual Trp genes with the majority of the 28 members being yet identified in different mast cell models, and we highlight mechanisms how they can regulate mast cell functions. Since specific agonists or blockers are still lacking for most members of the TRP family, studies to unravel their function and activation mode still rely on experiments using genetic approaches and transgenic animals. RNAi approaches suggest a functional role for TRPC1, TRPC5, and TRPM7 in mast cell derived cell lines or primary mast cells, and studies using Trp gene knock-out mice reveal a critical role for TRPM4 in mast cell activation and for mast cell mediated cutaneous anaphylaxis, whereas a direct role of cold- and menthol-activated TRPM8 channels seems to be unlikely for the development of cold urticaria at least in mice. Minimize

Publisher:

Frontiers Research Foundation

Year of Publication:

2012-06-12

Document Type:

Text

Language:

en

Subjects:

Immunology

Immunology Minimize

DDC:

571 Physiology & related subjects *(computed)*

Rights:

Copyright © 2012 Freichel, Almering and Tsvilovskyy. ; http://www.frontiersin.org/licenseagreement ; This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are ...

Copyright © 2012 Freichel, Almering and Tsvilovskyy. ; http://www.frontiersin.org/licenseagreement ; This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited. Minimize

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Title:

Prosody and conversation: an introduction

Author:

Year of Publication:

1998

Source:

ISSN:0023-8309

ISSN:0023-8309 Minimize

Document Type:

Article / Letter to the editor

Language:

en

Rights:

Copyright (c) Swerts, MGJ Marc ; Copyright (c) Hirschberg, J Julia

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