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Title:

Practical Inference for Typed-Based Termination in a Polymorphic Setting

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Description:

We introduce a polymorphic #-calculus that features inductive types and that enforces termination of recursive definitions through typing. Then, we define a sound and complete type inference algorithm that computes a set of constraints to be satisfied for terms to be typable.

We introduce a polymorphic #-calculus that features inductive types and that enforces termination of recursive definitions through typing. Then, we define a sound and complete type inference algorithm that computes a set of constraints to be satisfied for terms to be typable. Minimize

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The Pennsylvania State University CiteSeerX Archives

Year of Publication:

2009-04-19

Source:

http://www-sop.inria.fr/everest/Benjamin.Gregoire/Publi/Fsombrero.ps.gz

http://www-sop.inria.fr/everest/Benjamin.Gregoire/Publi/Fsombrero.ps.gz Minimize

Document Type:

text

Language:

en

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Metadata may be used without restrictions as long as the oai identifier remains attached to it.

Metadata may be used without restrictions as long as the oai identifier remains attached to it. Minimize

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Title:

Quantum memory

Description:

This thesis is devoted to the study of coherent storage of quantum information as well as its potential applications. Quantum memories are crucial to harnessing the potential of quantum physics for information processing tasks. They are required for almost all quantum computation proposals. However, despite the large arsenal of theoretical techn...

This thesis is devoted to the study of coherent storage of quantum information as well as its potential applications. Quantum memories are crucial to harnessing the potential of quantum physics for information processing tasks. They are required for almost all quantum computation proposals. However, despite the large arsenal of theoretical techniques and proposals dedicated to their implementation, the realization of long-lived quantum memories remains an elusive task. Encoding information in quantum states associated to many-body topological phases of matter and protecting them by means of a static Hamiltonian is one of the leading proposals to achieve quantum memories. While many genuine and well publicized virtues have been demonstrated for this approach, equally real limitations were widely disregarded. In the first two projects of this thesis, we study limitations of passive Hamiltonian protection of quantum information under two different noise models. Chapter 2 deals with arbitrary passive Hamiltonian protection for a many body system under the effect of local depolarizing noise. It is shown that for both constant and time dependent Hamiltonians, the optimal enhancement over the natural single-particle memory time is logarithmic in the number of particles composing the system. The main argument involves a monotonic increase of entropy against which a Hamiltonian can provide little protection. Chapter 3 considers the recoverability of quantum information when it is encoded in a many-body state and evolved under a Hamiltonian composed of known geometrically local interactions and a weak yet unknown Hamiltonian perturbation. We obtain some generic criteria which must be fulfilled by the encoding of information. For specific proposals of protecting Hamiltonian and encodings such as Kitaev's toric code and a subsystem code proposed by Bacon, we additionally provide example perturbations capable of destroying the memory which imply upper bounds for the provable memory times. Chapter 4 proposes engineered dissipation as a natural solution for continuously extracting the entropy introduced by noise and keeping the accumulation of errors under control. Persuasive evidence is provided supporting that engineered dissipation is capable of preserving quantum degrees of freedom from all previously considered noise models. Furthermore, it is argued that it provides additional flexibility over Hamiltonian thermalization models and constitutes a promising approach to quantum memories. Chapter 5 introduces a particular experimental realization of coherent storage, shifting the focus in many regards with respect to previous chapters. First of all, the system is very concrete, a room-temperature nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, which is subject to actual experimental control and noise restrictions which must be adequately modelled. Second, the relevant degrees of freedom reduce to a single electronic spin and a carbon 13 spin used to store a qubit. Finally, the approach taken to battle decoherence consists of inducing motional narrowing and applying dynamical decoupling pulse sequences, and is tailored to address the systems dominant noise sources. Chapter 6 analyses unforgeable tokens as a potential application of these room-temperature qubit memories. Quantum information protocols based on Wiesner's quantum money scheme are proposed and analysed. We provide the first rigorous proof that such unentangled tokens may be resistant to counterfeiting attempts while tolerating a certain amount of noise. In summary, this thesis provides contributions to quantum memories in four different aspects. Two projects were dedicated to understanding and exposing the limitations of existing proposals. This is followed by a constructive proposal of a new counter-intuitive theoretical model for quantum memories. An applied experimental project achieves record coherent storage times in room-temperature solids. Finally, we provide rigorous analysis for a quantum information application of quantum memories. This completes a broad picture of quantum memories which integrates different perspectives, from theoretical critique and constructive proposal, to technological application going through a down-to-earth experimental implementation. Minimize

Publisher:

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Year of Publication:

2012-06-04

Document Type:

Dissertation ; NonPeerReviewed

Subjects:

Fakultät für Physik

Fakultät für Physik Minimize

DDC:

541 Physical chemistry *(computed)*

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http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/14703/

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Title:

Fault-tolerant logical gates in quantum error-correcting codes

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Recently, Bravyi and K\"onig have shown that there is a tradeoff between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault-tolerant by construction. In particular, they shown...

Recently, Bravyi and K\"onig have shown that there is a tradeoff between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault-tolerant by construction. In particular, they shown that, for local stabilizer codes in D spatial dimensions, locality preserving gates are restricted to a set of unitary gates known as the D-th level of the Clifford hierarchy. In this paper, we elaborate this idea and provide several extensions and applications of their characterization in various directions. First, we present a new no-go theorem for self-correcting quantum memory. Namely, we prove that a three-dimensional stabilizer Hamiltonian with a locality-preserving implementation of a non-Clifford gate cannot have a macroscopic energy barrier. Second, we prove that the code distance of a D-dimensional local stabilizer code with non-trivial locality-preserving m-th level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by $O(L^{D+1-m})$. For codes with non-Clifford gates (m>2), this improves the previous best bound by Bravyi and Terhal. Third we prove that a qubit loss threshold of codes with non-trivial transversal m-th level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by 1/m. As such, no family of fault-tolerant codes with transversal gates in increasing level of the Clifford hierarchy may exist. This result applies to arbitrary stabilizer and subsystem codes, and is not restricted to geometrically-local codes. Fourth we extend the result of Bravyi and K\"onig to subsystem codes. A technical difficulty is that, unlike stabilizer codes, the so-called union lemma does not apply to subsystem codes. This problem is avoided by assuming the presence of error threshold in a subsystem code, and the same conclusion as Bravyi-K\"onig is recovered. ; Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures Minimize

Year of Publication:

2014-08-07

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

Quantum Physics ; Condensed Matter - Strongly Correlated Electrons

Quantum Physics ; Condensed Matter - Strongly Correlated Electrons Minimize

DDC:

005 Computer programming, programs & data *(computed)*

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Title:

Generating topological order: no speedup by dissipation

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We consider the problem of preparing topologically ordered states using unitary and non-unitary circuits, as well as local time-dependent Hamiltonian and Liouvillian evolutions. We prove that for any topological code in $D$ dimensions, the time required to encode logical information into the ground space is at least $\Omega(d^{1/(D-1)})$, where ...

We consider the problem of preparing topologically ordered states using unitary and non-unitary circuits, as well as local time-dependent Hamiltonian and Liouvillian evolutions. We prove that for any topological code in $D$ dimensions, the time required to encode logical information into the ground space is at least $\Omega(d^{1/(D-1)})$, where $d$ is the code distance. This result is tight for the toric code, giving a scaling with the linear system size. More generally, we show that the linear scaling is necessary even when dropping the requirement of encoding: preparing any state close to the ground space using dissipation takes an amount of time proportional to the diameter of the system in typical 2D topologically ordered systems, as well as for example the 3D and 4D toric codes. ; Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure Minimize

Year of Publication:

2013-10-03

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

Quantum Physics ; Mathematical Physics

Quantum Physics ; Mathematical Physics Minimize

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Title:

Fault-tolerant logical gates in quantum error-correcting codes

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Recently, S. Bravyi and R. König [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)] have shown that there is a trade-off between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant-depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault tolerant...

Recently, S. Bravyi and R. König [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)] have shown that there is a trade-off between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant-depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault tolerant by construction. In particular, they show that, for local stabilizer codes in D spatial dimensions, locality-preserving gates are restricted to a set of unitary gates known as the Dth level of the Clifford hierarchy. In this paper, we explore this idea further by providing several extensions and applications of their characterization to qubit stabilizer and subsystem codes. First, we present a no-go theorem for self-correcting quantum memory. Namely, we prove that a three-dimensional stabilizer Hamiltonian with a locality-preserving implementation of a non-Clifford gate cannot have a macroscopic energy barrier. This result implies that non-Clifford gates do not admit such implementations in Haah's cubic code and Michnicki's welded code. Second, we prove that the code distance of a D-dimensional local stabilizer code with a nontrivial locality-preserving mth-level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by O(L^(D+1−m)). For codes with non-Clifford gates (m>2), this improves the previous best bound by S. Bravyi and B. Terhal [New. J. Phys. 11, 043029 (2009)]. Topological color codes, introduced by H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 180501 (2006); Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 160502 (2007); Phys. Rev. B 75, 075103 (2007)], saturate the bound for m=D. Third, we prove that the qubit erasure threshold for codes with a nontrivial transversal mth-level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by 1/m. This implies that no family of fault-tolerant codes with transversal gates in increasing level of the Clifford hierarchy may exist. This result applies to arbitrary stabilizer and subsystem codes and is not restricted to geometrically local codes. Fourth, we extend the result of Bravyi and König to subsystem codes. Unlike stabilizer codes, the so-called union lemma does not apply to subsystem codes. This problem is avoided by assuming the presence of an error threshold in a subsystem code, and a conclusion analogous to that of Bravyi and König is recovered. Minimize

Publisher:

American Physical Society

Year of Publication:

2015-01-08

Document Type:

Article ; PeerReviewed

DDC:

005 Computer programming, programs & data *(computed)*

Relations:

http://authors.library.caltech.edu/55641/1/PhysRevA.91.012305.pdf ; http://authors.library.caltech.edu/55641/2/1408.1720v1.pdf ; Pastawski, Fernando and Yoshida, Beni (2015) Fault-tolerant logical gates in quantum error-correcting codes. Physical Review A, 91 (1). Art. No. 012305. ISSN 1050-2947....

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Title:

Generating topological order: No speedup by dissipation

Description:

We consider the problem of converting a product state to a ground state of a topologically ordered system through a locally generated open-system dynamic. Employing quantum-information tools, we show that such a conversion takes an amount of time proportional to the diameter of the system. Our result applies to typical two-dimensional topologica...

We consider the problem of converting a product state to a ground state of a topologically ordered system through a locally generated open-system dynamic. Employing quantum-information tools, we show that such a conversion takes an amount of time proportional to the diameter of the system. Our result applies to typical two-dimensional topologically ordered systems as well as, for example, the three-dimensional and four-dimensional toric codes. It is tight for the toric code, giving a scaling with the linear system size. Our results have immediate operational implications for the preparation of topologically ordered states, a crucial ingredient for topological quantum computation: Dissipation cannot provide any significant speedup compared to unitary evolution. Minimize

Publisher:

American Physical Society

Year of Publication:

2014-07-01

Document Type:

Article ; PeerReviewed

Relations:

http://authors.library.caltech.edu/55949/2/PhysRevB.90.045101.pdf ; http://authors.library.caltech.edu/55949/1/1310.1037v1.pdf ; http://authors.library.caltech.edu/55949/3/mainSM.pdf ; König, Robert and Pastawski, Fernando (2014) Generating topological order: No speedup by dissipation. Physical Review B, 90 (4). Art. No. 045101. ISSN 1098-0121....

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Title:

Selective and Efficient Quantum Process Tomography

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In this paper we describe in detail and generalize a method for quantum process tomography that was presented in [A. Bendersky, F. Pastawski, J. P. Paz, Physical Review Letters 100, 190403 (2008)]. The method enables the efficient estimation of any element of the $\chi$--matrix of a quantum process. Such elements are estimated as averages over e...

In this paper we describe in detail and generalize a method for quantum process tomography that was presented in [A. Bendersky, F. Pastawski, J. P. Paz, Physical Review Letters 100, 190403 (2008)]. The method enables the efficient estimation of any element of the $\chi$--matrix of a quantum process. Such elements are estimated as averages over experimental outcomes with a precision that is fixed by the number of repetitions of the experiment. Resources required to implement it scale polynomically with the number of qubits of the system. The estimation of all diagonal elements of the $\chi$--matrix can be efficiently done without any ancillary qubits. In turn, the estimation of all the off-diagonal elements requires an extra clean qubit. The key ideas of the method, that is based on efficient estimation by random sampling over a set of states forming a 2--design, are described in detail. Efficient methods for preparing and detecting such states are explicitly shown. ; Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures Minimize

Year of Publication:

2009-06-16

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics Minimize

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Title:

Hypercontractivity of quasi-free quantum semigroups

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Description:

Hypercontractivity of a quantum dynamical semigroup has strong implications for its convergence behavior and entropy decay rate. A logarithmic Sobolev inequality and the corresponding logarithmic Sobolev constant can be inferred from the semigroup's hypercontractive norm bound. We consider completely-positive quantum mechanical semigroups descri...

Hypercontractivity of a quantum dynamical semigroup has strong implications for its convergence behavior and entropy decay rate. A logarithmic Sobolev inequality and the corresponding logarithmic Sobolev constant can be inferred from the semigroup's hypercontractive norm bound. We consider completely-positive quantum mechanical semigroups described by a Lindblad master equation. To prove the norm bound, we follow an approach which has its roots in the study of classical rate equations. We use interpolation theorems for non-commutative $L_p$ spaces to obtain a general hypercontractive inequality from a particular $p \rightarrow q$-norm bound. Then, we derive a bound on the $2 \rightarrow 4$-norm from an analysis of the block diagonal structure of the semigroup's spectrum. We show that the dynamics of an $N$-qubit graph state Hamiltonian weakly coupled to a thermal environment is hypercontractive. As a consequence this allows for the efficient preparation of graph states in time ${\rm poly}(\log(N))$ by coupling at sufficiently low temperature. Furthermore, we extend our results to gapped Liouvillians arising from a weak linear coupling of a free-fermion systems. Minimize

Year of Publication:

2014-03-20

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

Quantum Physics ; Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics ; Mathematical Physics

Quantum Physics ; Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics ; Mathematical Physics Minimize

DDC:

515 Analysis *(computed)*

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Title:

Quantum memories based on engineered dissipation

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Storing quantum information for long times without disruptions is a major requirement for most quantum information technologies. A very appealing approach is to use self-correcting Hamiltonians, i.e. tailoring local interactions among the qubits such that when the system is weakly coupled to a cold bath the thermalization process takes a long ti...

Storing quantum information for long times without disruptions is a major requirement for most quantum information technologies. A very appealing approach is to use self-correcting Hamiltonians, i.e. tailoring local interactions among the qubits such that when the system is weakly coupled to a cold bath the thermalization process takes a long time. Here we propose an alternative but more powerful approach in which the coupling to a bath is engineered, so that dissipation protects the encoded qubit against more general kinds of errors. We show that the method can be implemented locally in four dimensional lattice geometries by means of a toric code, and propose a simple 2D set-up for proof of principle experiments. ; Comment: 6 +8 pages, 4 figures, Includes minor corrections updated references and aknowledgements Minimize

Year of Publication:

2010-10-14

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics Minimize

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Title:

An optimal dissipative encoder for the toric code

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We consider the problem of preparing specific encoded resource states for the toric code by local, time-independent interactions with a memoryless environment. We propose a construction of such a dissipative encoder which converts product states to topologically ordered ones while preserving logical information. The corresponding Liouvillian is ...

We consider the problem of preparing specific encoded resource states for the toric code by local, time-independent interactions with a memoryless environment. We propose a construction of such a dissipative encoder which converts product states to topologically ordered ones while preserving logical information. The corresponding Liouvillian is made up of four-local Lindblad operators. For a qubit lattice of size $L\times L$, we show that this process prepares encoded states in time $O(L)$, which is optimal. This scaling compares favorably with known local unitary encoders for the toric code which take time of order $\Omega(L^2)$ and require active time-dependent control. ; Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures, v2: updated to match published version Minimize

Year of Publication:

2013-10-03

Document Type:

text

Subjects:

Quantum Physics

Quantum Physics Minimize

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