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Property and Income Taxation in an Economy with an Austrian Sector

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Capacity-Constrained Price Competition when Unit Costs Differ

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This paper characterizes the set of NASH equilibria in a price setting duopoly in which firms have limited capacity, and in which unit costs of production up to capacity may differ. Assuming concave revenue and efficient rationing, we show that the case of different unit costs involves a tractable generalization of the methods used to analyze th...

This paper characterizes the set of NASH equilibria in a price setting duopoly in which firms have limited capacity, and in which unit costs of production up to capacity may differ. Assuming concave revenue and efficient rationing, we show that the case of different unit costs involves a tractable generalization of the methods used to analyze the case of identical costs. However, the supports of the two firms' equilibrium price distributions need no longer be connected and need not coincide. In addition, the supports of the equilibrium price distributions need no longer be continuous in the underlying parameters of the model. Two applications of our characterization are pursued. In the Kreps-Scheinkman model of capacity choice followed by Bertrand-Edgeworth price competition we show that, unlike in the case of identical costs, Cournot equilibrium capacity levels need not arise as subgame-perfect equilibria. The low-cost firm has greater incentive to price its rival out of the market than exists under Cournot behavior. Our second application is to the analysis of the effects of tariffs and quotas in a model in which a domestic market is supplied by a price setting duopoly consisting of a domestic and a foreign firm. We obtain a strong nonequivalence result. Minimize

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Price Leadership

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Strategic Defense and Attack for Series and Parallel Reliability Systems: Comment

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Hausken (2008a) formulates a contest-theoretic model of the attack and defense of a network of targets. This note identies a technical error that invalidates Hausken's characterization of Nash equilibrium for a substantial portion of the parameter space that he examines and provides necessary conditions for his solution to form a pure- strategy ...

Hausken (2008a) formulates a contest-theoretic model of the attack and defense of a network of targets. This note identies a technical error that invalidates Hausken's characterization of Nash equilibrium for a substantial portion of the parameter space that he examines and provides necessary conditions for his solution to form a pure- strategy Nash equilibrium. Many of the existing results in the contest-theoretic liter- ature on the attack and defense of networks of targets rely upon Hausken's (2008a) characterization and require corresponding parameter restrictions. When these restric- tions are not met, the analysis of Clark and Konrad (2007) and Kovenock and Roberson (2010a) provides a foundation for constructing mixed-strategy Nash equilibria. ; Game theory; Reliability theory; OR in military; Con ict; Contest; Network; Colonel Blotto game Minimize

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GATT, Dispute Settlement and Cooperation: A Reply

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The Optimal Defense of Networks of Targets

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This paper examines a game-theoretic model of attack and defense of multiple networks of targets in which there exist intra-network strategic complementarities among targets. The defender’s objective is to successfully defend all of the networks and the attacker’s objective is to successfully attack at least one network of targets. In this conte...

This paper examines a game-theoretic model of attack and defense of multiple networks of targets in which there exist intra-network strategic complementarities among targets. The defender’s objective is to successfully defend all of the networks and the attacker’s objective is to successfully attack at least one network of targets. In this context, our results highlight the importance of modeling asymmetric attack and defense as a conflict between “fully” strategic actors with endogenous entry and force expenditure decisions as well as allowing for general correlation structures for force expenditures within and across the networks of targets. ; Asymmetric Conflict, Attack and Defense, Weakest-Link, Best-Shot Minimize

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Asymmetric Information, Information Externalities, and Efficiency: The Case of Oil Exploration

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In this article we examine the effect of private information and information externalties on the ex post efficiency of investment in oil exploration. We show that too much drilling tends to occur if firms believe that the area is likely to contain a sizeable pool of oil, and too little drilling occurs if the opposite is true. Bargaining with wel...

In this article we examine the effect of private information and information externalties on the ex post efficiency of investment in oil exploration. We show that too much drilling tends to occur if firms believe that the area is likely to contain a sizeable pool of oil, and too little drilling occurs if the opposite is true. Bargaining with well-defined property rights to the information externality can eliminate underinvestment, but overinvestment remains a problem because firms have an incentive not to disclose their private information. Minimize

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Strategic Defense and Attack for Series and Parallel Reliability Systems: Rejoinder

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In our original comment, we showed that Hausken's characterization of Nash equilibrium is invalid for much of the parameter space examined and provided necessary conditions for his solution to hold. Most of the comments in his reply are either tangential or irrelevant. However, several of the claims made in the reply reveal continuing misunderst...

In our original comment, we showed that Hausken's characterization of Nash equilibrium is invalid for much of the parameter space examined and provided necessary conditions for his solution to hold. Most of the comments in his reply are either tangential or irrelevant. However, several of the claims made in the reply reveal continuing misunderstandings and gaps in his understanding. In this rejoinder, we brie y clarify the fundamental issues. ; Game theory; OR in military; Con ict, Contest, Network, Colonel Blotto game Minimize

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Tacit Collusion and Capacity Withholding in Repeated Uniform Price Auctions

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This paper contributes to the study of tacit collusion by analyzing infinitely repeated multiunit uniform price auctions in a symmetric oligopoly with capacity constrained firms. Under both the Market Clearing and Maximum Accepted Price rules of determining the uniform price, we show that when each firm sets a price-quantity pair specifying the ...

This paper contributes to the study of tacit collusion by analyzing infinitely repeated multiunit uniform price auctions in a symmetric oligopoly with capacity constrained firms. Under both the Market Clearing and Maximum Accepted Price rules of determining the uniform price, we show that when each firm sets a price-quantity pair specifying the firm's minimum acceptable price and the maximum quantity the firm is willing to sell at this price, there exists a range of discount factors for which the monopoly outcome with equal sharing is sustainable in the uniform price auction, but not in the corresponding discriminatory auction. Moreover, capacity withholding may be necessary to sustain this out-come. We extend these results to the case where firms may set bids that are arbitrary step functions of price-quantity pairs with any finite number of price steps. Surprisingly, under the Maximum Accepted Price rule, firms need employ no more than two price steps to minimize the value of the discount factor ; Auction, Capacity, Collusion, Electricity Market, Supply Function Minimize

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A Blotto Game with Multi-Dimensional Incomplete Information

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In the Colonel Blotto game, each of two players simultaneously allocates his fixed budget of a resource across a finite number n of battleelds. Within each battlefield, the player that allocates the higher level of the resource wins the battlefield. Each player's payoff is equal to the sum of the values of the battlefields he wins. In this paper...

In the Colonel Blotto game, each of two players simultaneously allocates his fixed budget of a resource across a finite number n of battleelds. Within each battlefield, the player that allocates the higher level of the resource wins the battlefield. Each player's payoff is equal to the sum of the values of the battlefields he wins. In this paper we examine a multi-dimensional incomplete information version of the Colonel Blotto game in which each player's n-tuple of battlefield valuations is drawn from a common n-variate joint distribution function. ; Colonel Blotto Game, Con ict, Multi-dimensional Incomplete Information, Multi-dimensional Action Space Minimize

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